To enable or disable filtering, set the AllowFilteringByColumn property of the RadGrid or GridTableView control.
RadGrid filters data internally, after data binding. Filtering can be fully customized by setting the value of FilterExpression property of the GridTableView control. If you want to work with FilterExpression of Telerik RadGrid manually, then the following documentation will be of help: Operating with the FilterExpression of Telerik RadGrid manually
Setting the text for filter textbox is nearly simple; access the GridFilteringItem from code behind and get reference to the textbox control to set the Text property. The follwoing code snippet will be helpful.