You could achieve this if you disable the scrolling of the Grid. In this scenario the table element of the Grid will be with an "auto" table-layout, so the columns will expand and shrink according to their content.
When the scrolling is enabled,the table layout is fixed, so any columns, that does not have an explicitly specified width will be equally wide.
You could find additional information in the following topics, where my colleague Dimo has answered in detail:
Dynamically resize kendo grid and columns
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