The evaluation of the Action is not synchronized with the evaluation of the templates of the Kendo UI TreeList. Therefore, at the time of the creation of the anchor tag, the template would not return an accurate value. What I can recommend is that you append the query parameters manually. Here is an example:
columns.Add().Field(e => e.LastName).Width(160).Template("<a href=" + @Url.Action("GetTimeFrame", "Template") + "?timeFrameId=#=FirstName#>#=FirstName#</a>");
In case further assistance is needed, let me know.