Currently, Cordova does not provide the WebView that the apps are rendered in. Cordova depends on Android to provide this WebView. This means that the WebViews will be different on the different Android versions. I believe Android 4.4's WebView is actually a Chromium WebView, so if your app runs only on Android 4.4+, it can take advantage from the Chromium WebView.
That being said, there is no way to do what you want out of the box. Normally, you would use the UserMedia API
I hope this information was helpful. Let me know if you have any other questions.