Thank you very much for providing this example it helped a lot in narrowing down the issue.
The problem comes from the fact that you are initializing the ListView widget every time you call the changeListviewDay() method. This is not supported, as it overrides the widgets and can cause unexpected behavior, such as ListView disappearing. The simplest solution is to detect if the widget is created and if its created use the setDataSource() method to change its dataSource, or if its not created - then simply created it.
I was able to reproduce this issue on a Nexus 7 and Android 4.4.2, but after the above mentioned fix the issue disappeared. Please note that you will need to deploy it on the device, as the jsBin might not work as expected:
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