Is there a way to open and view the full log file after I run a test from Test Explorer?
You can try to right click in Test Explorer and use the option Copy All. After that you can paste the log in Notepad. I've recorded a short video
Is there something I can do to get Test Explorer to honor the case in the test names?
Unfortunately this is outside of our control. You can contact Microsoft Support regarding this issue.
Please let me know whether you have any additional questions.