I took a look at your case and it indeed looks strange. Your app does not provision the device, yet it obviously installed on it. There is one possible way of this happening. I see that you have resigned this app four times. Here is my guess to what steps you took:
1. The device was originally provisioned in the provisioning profile and the app was signed with it. You tested it and it successfully installed. Then uninstalled it from the device.
2. You removed the device from the provisioning profile and resigned the app with the newly generated provisioning profile. You tested the app install and it succeeded although the device is not provisioned anymore.
The reason for this is that iOS caches this check for some time and in fact does not make it the second time. It simply remembers that this provisioning profile provisioned this device lately. You can clear this cache by restarting your device. Restart your device and try installing the app again.
Other than that, I have no idea what could cause this behavior. Let me know if this was the case.