Normally, such errors are caused by the iOS caching app ids that it decided are not good for some reason. In such cases a completely new App Id and provisioning profile fixes the issue. Perhaps, in your case there is something more. Can you please clarify if this happens only on your device or on all of the devices of your users? Also, what versions of iOS are you trying to install the app on?
The only way of investigating this problem would be to connect a device to a Mac and get the error logs while you try to install the app and it fails. If you have a Mac, you can connect your device, open XCode and go to Window -> Devices. There is a small triangle on the bottom of the window that opens the console. Once the console is opened, try installing the app and see the error log that the iOS reports. Sending us this error log would greatly help us understand what exactly is happening on your end.
There are a couple of other things that you can try.
1. Try installing the app from another network. There is a slim chance your network is blocking the app download somehow. Of course, if your other users are using different networks and still cannot download the app, it means this is not relevant.
2. There is still a chance that iOS cached something and ignores the app install. There is one unofficial way to "free" the cache. It's not user friendly and you need a Mac, but you can still try it out:
Download iExplorer (http://www.macroplant.com/iexplorer/) or its free version iBrowse (https://www.ibrowseapp.com/) on your Mac.
Plug the device in the Mac machine
Delete all files in “Media > Downloads”
Restart the device.
The main problem with such iOS problems troubleshooting is that Apple are not giving us any chance of control over this workflow for security reasons. We would love to be able to log these errors on our side. Let me know if you have a chance to try one of these suggestions out and if yes - let me know the results.
I am looking forward to your reply.